Massachusetts Law School 1L Study Guide for Civil Procedure
I. Introduction to Civil Procedure
Civil Procedure concerns the rules and standards courts follow to adjudicate civil cases. It includes the processes for the resolution of disputes from the pre-litigation phase through trial and potential appeals.
II. Jurisdiction and Venue
A. Subject Matter Jurisdiction
Refers to the authority of a court to hear cases of a particular type or cases relating to specific subject matter.
- Federal Question Jurisdiction: Authority of federal courts to hear cases “arising under” the Constitution, laws or treaties of the United States (28 U.S.C. § 1331).
Diversity Jurisdiction: Federal jurisdiction based on parties being from different states and the amount in controversy exceeding $75,000 (28 U.S.C. § 1332).
B. Personal Jurisdiction
The power of a court to bring a party before it. In Massachusetts, the exercise of personal jurisdiction must conform with the state’s long-arm statute and the Due Process Clause of the U.S. Constitution.
- International Shoe Co. v. Washington (1945): Established the “minimum contacts” standard, holding that a party can be subjected to a state’s jurisdiction if it has certain minimum contacts with the state such that the maintenance of the suit does not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice.
The specific location or court where a case should be heard. Massachusetts has its own rules governing proper venue within the state, generally favoring the county where either party lives or where the incident occurred.
III. Pleading Phase
A. Complaints and Responses
The initial pleadings that begin a civil action. The plaintiff files a complaint, and the defendant must respond, typically with an answer, motion to dismiss, or sometimes a counterclaim.
- Rule 8(a) of the Massachusetts Rules of Civil Procedure outlines the requirements for a claim, including a short and plain statement of jurisdiction, the claim, and the relief sought.
Requests by parties asking the court for specific relief. Common motions include the motion to dismiss and motion to compel.
IV. Pretrial Procedures
The process by which parties obtain information from each other to prepare for trial. Massachusetts rules provide for depositions, document requests, interrogatories, and requests for admission.
B. Summary Judgment
A procedural device to dispose of cases without a trial when there are no genuine disputes as to any material fact and the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law.
- Celotex Corp. v. Catrett (1986): Demonstrated the standards for summary judgment under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 56, which also influences state practices.
V. Trial Procedures
A. Selection of the Jury
Massachusetts uses the voir dire process to select an impartial jury, which may include specific questions posed by attorneys and approved by the court.
B. Presentation of Evidence
Guided by the Massachusetts Guide to Evidence, parties introduce evidence through witness testimony, documents, and physical evidence.
VI. Post-Trial Motions and Appeals
A. Motions for New Trial or to Set Aside Judgment
Parties may ask the court to reconsider its judgment due to various factors, including errors during the trial or new evidence.
The process for seeking review by a higher court. In Massachusetts, parties typically have 30 days from the entry of the final judgment to file a notice of appeal.
VII. Res Judicata and Collateral Estoppel
A. Res Judicata (Claim Preclusion)
The principle that a final judgment on the merits by a court of competent jurisdiction bars the same parties from relitigating the same cause of action in a future lawsuit.
B. Collateral Estoppel (Issue Preclusion)
The concept that once a court has decided an issue of material fact or law necessary to its judgment, that decision may preclude re-litigation of the issue in a lawsuit on a different cause of action involving a party to the first case.
VIII. Massachusetts-Specific Procedures
A. Massachusetts Rules of Civil Procedure
These rules govern civil proceedings in the state’s courts and closely resemble the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, with some variations.
B. Massachusetts Consumer Protection Law (Chapter 93A)
A specific area of law regarding consumer rights, allowing for private actions and remedies including damages and attorney’s fees.
IX. Case Law and Key Statutes
A. Gillette Co. v. American Arbitration Association (2002)
A Massachusetts case that addressed the enforceability of arbitration agreements and their impact on the courts’ jurisdiction.
B. G.L. c. 223A (Massachusetts Long-Arm Statute)
Provides for the exercise of personal jurisdiction over non-residents who have sufficient contacts with Massachusetts.
C. G.L. c. 231, § 59H (Anti-SLAPP Statute)
Allows defendants to seek dismissal of lawsuits based on their petitioning activities unless the plaintiff can show that the defendant’s exercise of its right to petition was devoid of any reasonable factual support or arguable basis in law.
This study guide provides a high-level overview of the topics and cases that are relevant to a 1L Civil Procedure course, focusing on Massachusetts law. Students should consult their class materials, casebooks, and the Massachusetts Rules of Civil Procedure for detailed explanations and full case law text.